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...by 08.10.2009

THE LEGAL PROFESSION
In most countries there is only one legal profession. This means that all the lawyers have roughly the same professional education leading to the same legal qualifications, and they are allowed to do all the legal work that has to be done. In England the system is different. Here the profession is divided into two types of lawyers, called solicitors and barristers. Solicitors and barristers are qualified lawyers, but they have a different legal training, they take different examinations to qualify, and once they qualified they usually do different types of legal work.
Barristers specialize in arguing cases in front of a judge and have the right to be heard, the right of audience, even in the highest courts. They are not paid directly by clients, but are employed by solicitors. Judges are usually chosen from the most senior barristers, and once appointed they cannot continue to practice as barristers.
Solicitors do much of the initial preparation for cases, which they then hand to barristers to argue in court, as well as legal work, which does not come before a court. They draw up wills, give advice in the field of business, make all the legal arrangements for buying or selling land, assist employees and employers in cases involving allegations of unfair dismissal and redundancy payments, handle divorce and child care. They also deal with litigation, which is settled out of court. Solicitors have the right of audience in lower courts, but in higher courts, such as the Court of Appeal, they choose a barrister who argues their case in court.
In general, it can be said that a barrister spends most of his time either in a courtroom or preparing his arguments for the court and a solicitor spends most of his time in an office giving advice to clients, making investigations and preparing documents.
Many people believe the distinction between barristers and solicitors should be eliminated in England, as it has already happened in Australia. The government is considering various proposals, but there are arguments for maintaining, as well as removing, the division.

Vocabulary Notes

1.   lawyer

юрист

2.   qualification

подготовленность, квалификация

3.   solicitor

солиситор

4.   barrister

барристер

5.   qualified lawyer

дипломированный юрист

6.   to have a legal training

иметь юридическую подготовку

7.   to argue a case in court

обсуждать дело в суде вести дело в суде

8.   the right to be heard = the right of audience

право выступать в суде

9.   senior

старший, главный
зд. опытный

10. to appoint smb.

назначать к-л

11. to do the initial preparation for cases

вести первоначальную подготовку дел

12. to hand smth to smb

передавать ч-л к-л

13. to draw up wills

составлять завещания

14. to make legal arrangements for smth

юридически оформить ч-л

15. to assist smb

помогать к-л

16. allegation

заявление, утверждение

17. unfair dismissal

несправедливое увольнение

18. redundancy payments

выплаты при увольнении по сокращению штатов

19. to handle smth

иметь дело с ч-л, рассматривать

20. child care

опека над детьми

21. litigation

тяжба, судебный спор, процесс

22.  to settle out of court

решать вне суда

23. courtroom

зал суда

24. to prepare one's arguments

готовить выступление по делу

25. to make investigations

проводить расследование

26. distinction

различие

27. to eliminate

устранять, уничтожать, ликвидировать

28. to consider various proposals

рассматривать различные предложения

29. to maintain

сохранить

30. to remove

устранить