APPEALS
An appeal is a request to a higher court to re-examine and change the judgment of a previous court hearing.
In modern English practice most appeals are dealt by way of rehearing. Appellate tribunals are usually reluctant to overturn the decisions of lower tribunals on questions of fact even when they have the power to do so. Consequently, most of the argument is about legal errors allegedly committed at the trial.
The appeal system is mostly for the benefit of the defendant, but it is possible for the prosecution to appeal for a re-trial if it can be shown that there was some improper conduct, such as bribing or intimidating witnesses or jurors.
A defendant found guilty may appeal against the finding or against the punishment to the local Crown Court, and the Crown Court judge will hear the appeal without a jury. If a defendant has a good reason to believe the magistrates have made a mistake about a point of law, then he may appeal to the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court.
Appeals from the Crown Court go first to the High Court and, in special cases, to the Court of Appeal. Occasionally, a case is carried through this system of appeal all the way to the House of Lords. The House of Lords, the upper house of the British parliament, only deals with cases of real public importance. The House of Lords is the final court of appeal. Its decisions on both criminal and civil matters bind all other courts. Only the government can overturn a decision of the House of Lords and then, only by passing an Act of Parliament.
Under the Constitutional Reform Act of 2005 the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom will take over the judicial functions from the House of Lords in 2009. The new Supreme Court is supposed to put the relationship between the executive, the legislature and the judiciary on a modern footing. It will ensure the separation of powers between the three branches of power. The Supreme Court will consist of 12 judges appointed by Her Majesty.
It is not possible to appeal the decision of any court to the European Court of Human Rights.
The ECtHR is an international court that hears complaints concerning breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. A dissatisfied litigant might complain to the ECtHR that English law has violated his rights. A decision in the ECtHR will not change English law. and it is up to the Government of the United Kingdom to decide what action (if any) to take after an adverse finding.

1.

appeal

апелляция, апелляционная жалоба

2.

request

просьба, ходатайство, запрос

3.

to re-examine

пересмотреть

4.

to change the judgement

изменить судебное решение

5.

rehearing

повторное слушание дела

6.

appellate tribunal

апелляционный суд

7.

to be reluctant to do smth

делать ч-л с неохотой

8.

to overturn a decision

отменять вынесенное решение

9.

question of fact

вопрос факта

10.

consequently

следовательно

11.

argument

довод, доказательство, спор

12.

legal error

ошибка в вопросе права

13.

allegedly

якобы, как утверждается

14.

re-trial

повторное слушание дела

15.

improper conduct

неправомерное поведение

16.

to bribe

давать взятки

17.

to intimidate a witness

запугивать свидетеля

18.

to appeal against the finding

подавать       апелляцию        против решения по делу

19.

to appeal against the punishment

подавать       апелляцию        против наказания

20.

to make a mistake about a point of law

сделать ошибку в вопросе права

21.

occasionally

иногда

22.

cases of public importance

дела общественной важности

23.

final court of appeal

апелляционный      суд      последней инстанции

24.

to bind (bound)

обязывать

25.

to pass an Act of Parliament

принять акт парламента

26.

the executive

исполнительная власть

27.

the legislature

законодательная власть

28.

the judiciary

судебная власть

29.

separation of powers

разделение властей

30

branch of power

ветвь власти

31.

Her Majesty

Ее Королевское Величество

32.

the European Court of Human Rights

Европейский     Суд     по     правам человека

33.

breach

нарушение

34.

the   European   Convention   on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Европейская   конвенция   по   правам человека

35.

to violate one's rights

нарушать ч-л права

36.

litigant

тяжущийся

37.

adverse finding

противное,              неблагоприятное решение