JURY
Jury is a group of ordinary people selected at random to decide the facts of the case and give a verdict.
In a Crown Court trial in England there are twelve jurors. These are ordinary members of the public between the ages of 18 and 70. They are not paid but are given expenses while they are on jury service, which is usually for about two weeks. Service is compulsory, and cannot normally be avoided without a good reason, such as illness. It is not necessary for a juror to know anything about the law -indeed certain people connected with the world of law, such as solicitors, are not allowed to serve as jurors. This is because the job of the jury is to listen to the case and decide questions of fact. It is the judge's responsibility to guide them on questions of law.
This contrast between law and fact is very important. If a man is on a trial for murder the judge will explain what the crime of murder means in English law and what the prosecution has to prove. He will sum up the evidence of the prosecution and defence and explain how the trial will be conducted. These are questions of law. However, whether the defendant is guilty or not is a question of fact to be decided by the jurors themselves. It is necessary for at least ten out of the twelve jurors to agree.
It is a criminal offence to try to influence a jury's decisions or to question them about their discussions when the case is over.
In some countries such as France the judges and the jurors decide the case together. In the United States juries not only decide if the defendant is guilty but sometimes also have a say in what punishment he should receive. Before World War II Japan also had a jury system, but it was often criticized for the ease with which jurors could be bribed. Now Japan, like South Korea, is a rare example of a modern industrialized country where jurors are not used: all decisions are made by professional judges.

1.

jury

суд присяжных

2.

to select at random

выбирать произвольно/наугад

3.

facts of the case

обстоятельства дела

4.

verdict

решение присяжных

5.

juror

присяжный заседатель

6.

to give expenses

давать деньги на расходы

7.

to be on jury service jury service

выполнять обязанности присяжного заседателя выполнение функций присяжного заседателя

8.

compulsory

обязательный, принудительный

9.

to avoid smth (doing smth)

избегать ч-л

10.

without a good reason

без достаточного основания

11.

solicitor

солиситор,стряпчий, юристконсульт

12.

to guide smb on smth

направлять к-л по ч-л

13.

question of fact

вопрос факта

14.

question of law

вопрос права

15.

to be on a trial for

предстать перед судом

 

16.

murder

убийство

 

18.

to sum up evidence

подытожить             результаты             судебного разбирательства

 

19.

defence

защита (на суде)

 

20.

to conduct a trial

вести судебный процесс

 

21.

to influence smth

влиять на ч-л

 

22.

to question smb

допрашивать к-л

 

23.

to have a say

высказывать свое мнение

 

24.

punishment

наказание

 

25.

to bribe

давать взятку

 

26.

rare example

редкий пример